Multimodal interfaces allow for interactions using multiple modes or channels, such as voice, touch, gesture, and typing

In the future, our way of interacting with technology won't just be through chat. Instead, it will be versatile, letting us use voice, touch, or typing, and it will be everywhere around us. We won't be dealing with endless screens or worrying if we're on a phone or a computer. These future systems will be smart, adjusting to our situation and providing only what we need at the moment. They'll be tailored on-the-fly, based on what's relevant for us.
  1. Multimodal and Ubiquitous: Multimodal interfaces allow for interactions using multiple modes or channels, such as voice, touch, gesture, and typing. This means that users can switch between different forms of input based on what's most convenient or natural for them at the moment. For example, you might use voice commands to interact with your smart home system when your hands are occupied, but switch to touch input when you're using a device in your hands.
  2. Ubiquitous computing, also known as pervasive computing, refers to the seamless integration of computing capabilities into everyday environments. In a ubiquitous computing environment, interfaces could be present everywhere in the form of embedded systems, wearable devices, smart appliances, and more. These devices could communicate with each other and the user, providing a seamless experience across different contexts.
  3. Intelligent, Contextual, and Ephemeral: Future interfaces are expected to be intelligent, meaning they will leverage AI and machine learning to understand user needs and provide personalized responses. For instance, a smart refrigerator might suggest recipes based on what's inside, or a personal assistant app might learn your daily routine and automatically provide relevant information (e.g., traffic updates before your commute).
  4. Contextual interfaces are capable of understanding the user's situation or environment and adjusting accordingly. For example, a music app might suggest playlists based on the time of day, your location, or your recent listening history.
  5. Ephemeral interfaces appear when needed and disappear when not, reducing clutter and distraction. Think of pop-up notifications on your smartphone: they provide information when it's relevant, but they don't permanently occupy screen space.
  6. Fluid Interfaces with Enhanced Sound and Haptics: Fluid interfaces are flexible and can adapt to the user's needs. They might adjust their layout based on the user's device, activity, or preferences. They also incorporate multiple sensory channels, like sound and haptic feedback, to provide richer and more intuitive interactions. For instance, a fitness tracker might use haptic signals to guide you through a workout, or a navigation app might use sound cues to provide directions.
  7. Virtual Concierge: The concept of a virtual concierge involves an AI-powered system that understands individual users, their preferences, and their behavior to provide personalized assistance. This could involve suggesting activities, answering questions, making reservations, and more. The more you interact with this virtual concierge, the better it becomes at anticipating your needs and providing relevant support.
  8. Systems Adapting to Humans: This is the principle of user-centered design. Instead of forcing users to adapt to the way a system works, the system should adapt to the user. This could involve personalizing the user interface, providing multiple input methods, accommodating different skill levels, and more.

Visualizing these concepts, imagine a day in the life with these future interfaces. You wake up to your smart home system gently increasing the light in your room, simulating a sunrise. It has learned your preferred wake-up routine over time. As you go to the kitchen, your smart fridge suggests a breakfast recipe based on your dietary preferences and the food you have available.

As you head out for work, your smart car adjusts the seating and temperature based on your preferences. It also recommends the best route based on real-time traffic conditions. During your commute, you use voice commands to check your schedule, send messages, and play your favorite podcast. When you receive an important message, your wearable device gives a subtle haptic signal. You use a gesture to bring up a heads-up display, reading your message while you keep your eyes on the road. When you arrive at work, your workspace adapts to your needs, setting up the tools and applications you usually use in the morning.

Throughout the day, the system adjusts to your activities, providing the right tools and information at the right time, and disappearing when not needed. For instance, during a video conference, you might use a combination of voice, touch, and gesture to interact with the system, switching between modalities as needed. The interface might use sound cues to indicate when it's your turn to speak, and haptic feedback to signal incoming messages or notifications.

In the evening, as you relax at home, your smart home system creates a calming environment, adjusting the lighting, temperature, and sound to your preferences. You interact with the system using casual voice commands, or maybe even gestures, and it responds with subtle sound and haptic cues, enhancing the calm, ambient atmosphere.

And this is just a glimpse of what future interfaces could look like. They will be everywhere, embedded in our environments and devices, adaptable to our needs and contexts, and capable of multimodal interactions. They will learn from our behavior, improve over time, and provide just enough interface to support us without overwhelming us.

Biometrics, which includes technologies for identifying individuals based on physical or behavioral traits, is another important area. Multimodal biometrics, which combine different biometric methods, are expected to see significant demand, providing resilience against data thefts and counterfeiting​.

Brain-machine interfaces, which enable direct communication between the brain and external devices, could also provide exciting opportunities, particularly in gaming, consumer electronics, and healthcare. Wearable healthcare devices configured as smartwatches, armbands, or even skin patches are expected to be commercialized in the coming years​.

Finally, to support these new interface technologies, we will need advanced computing capabilities, including neuromorphic computing and quantum computers. Cybersecurity and user privacy will also be crucial, as these interfaces will be handling sensitive personal data and need to be trusted by users​.

Ultimately, the goal of these future interfaces is to create a more natural, intuitive, and personalized interaction between humans and technology, where the systems adapt to us, rather than the other way around.